February Goals

We’re into February now, so how are your new year goals going?

I’m really pleased with my progress, I am starting to feel much stronger after doing chi gong about 3-4 times a week, I upped it from 15 to 20 minutes last week. This week I’m starting new, more intensive postures in some of my sessions so I’ve dropped those back to 15 minutes.

I’ve noticed how much easier I can chuck the muck to the top of the muck heap (!) and wade through muddy fields with increasing ease. I have more energy and I’m not craving salty or fatty foods as much.

I hope you’re managing to make any positive changes that you wanted, remember to be kind to yourself. If you miss the gym one night (or one week) or eat an entire extra large pizza it really isn’t the end of the world, just continue with your program and you’ll get there.

Let me know how you’re getting on in the comments.

My Dog Doesn’t Need Treatment, Does It?

McTimoney animal therapy is a gentle, effective treatment that releases muscles and improves spinal range of motion.  It is especially suitable for active, competing or working dogs and can help prevent physical problems related to tight muscles and loss of flexibility later in life.

McTimoney is a truly holistic approach to caring for your animals’ physical well being, each treatment is tailored to suit the individual. McTimoney Animal Practitioners try to find out what might be causing the problem in the first place, rather than treat the symptoms.  During the consultation information is gathered about the animal and the owner, any previous injury, any problems it is coping or not coping with currently, and after watching how the animal moves the treatment can commence.  First realigning the skeleton using the McTimoney technique, and then massaging any tightness or tension away throughout the body.


Does My Dog Need McTimoney Treatment?

Owners can spot signs of discomfort in their dog, below is a list of things to look out for that may mean your dog would benefit from treatment, but is by no means extensive:

  • Your dog may seem more timid than usual or resent being touched in a particular place, this may be a sign of discomfort somewhere in its body.
  • Your dog may tire more easily than usual, especially on longer walks, or may seem less enthusiastic before walks or play less vigorously.
  • Your dog may stop what it is doing and look at its leg/ back or somewhere that it has felt pain or discomfort.
  • Your dog may lick or gnaw at one particular place on its body, where there are no cuts to the skin.
  • Dogs that prefer to use the pacing gait, and have no breed or conformation disposition towards this way of moving, may be uncomfortable through the middle of their back, pacing prevents rotation through this area that occurs when the dog trots, pacing enables the dog the hold the middle of its back stiffer and avoid causing too much movement through the middle of the back if it is uncomfortable.

Dogs that have previously been lame will benefit from treatment once the lameness has been resolved. This is because the dog will avoid using the painful area.  Once the pain has gone, the dog won’t automatically use its body as it had before it was lame.  The dog will continue to use the leg it has been favouring, leading to a weakening of the muscles in the previously injured leg or body area, causing increased overuse and tension in the leg that the dog has a preference for.  At first, the dog will cope with this without any problem, but over time the muscles in one leg will build up while the other loses its tone, this can lead to further tightening of adjacent muscles that attempt to stabilise and compensate for the weaker area.  Pain and inflammation can follow in the overworked muscles, and cause a secondary lameness.  Having your dog treated once the lameness has resolved can prevent this cycle of events from happening in the first place.

Active and Competing Dogs

When competing with your dog, whether agility, flyball, obedience, field trials or even if your dog loves jumping for a ball or playing roughly, can all put strain on the muscles, a small slip or uneven landing can lead to injury.  Keeping your dog’s musculoskeletal system working at its optimum, will give him the best chance of competing at his best and help to prevent overuse injuries.  Getting a check with a McTimoney Animal Practitioner can help to pick up tissue strains and sprains before they become a bigger problem. Treatment can improve quality of gait in the show dog, and gives a sense of wellbeing, which may help your dog relax in the ring.


Whether you compete, work with or enjoy your dog as a beloved companion, McTimoney therapy can help keep your dog comfortable and help prevent injury in active dogs.

  • A reduction in performance during a competition or increased aggression or fear behaviours could be linked to pain or discomfort somewhere in the body, McTimoney animal therapy can help pinpoint where there may be a physical problem and help to resolve this.
  • McTimoney therapy can be used to help rehabilitate animals after an operation or manage a chronic condition.
  • Older dogs can benefit from gentle treatment to help ease compensations for aging joints and muscles.  Although having your dog treated before the onset of these problems can help improve comfort on old age, and prevent age related debilitation.

McTimoney is not a cure for lameness or internal problems, where there may be a suspected underlying medical condition the practitioner will always advise the owner to seek help from a vet.

Case Studies

A 15 year old Border Collie was brought to me, starting to slow on his walks, he appeared to have stiffness through his joints and had become quieter than usual.  His vet suggested that physical therapy might help, and his owner decided to give me a call.  After treatment Jasper was feeling so well that he raced round the house, jumping on the bed, something he hasn’t been able to do for a while.  Dawn said, “I can’t thank you enough for the improvement to his well-being.  His walking is much better and his back isn’t hunched like it used to be.  It’s taken several years off him, thanks again”.

5 year old Staffordshire Bull Terrier,  was usually a very active dog, who loved catching her ball in the air, but had become reluctant to go up the stairs or jump in the car, even whimpering as she did so on occasion.  She was given painkillers by the vet, who suggested that her mobility would continue to decline as she aged, even though x-rays had not revealed any skeletal injury or arthritis.  After the initial consultation, it was clear to me, that the dog had considerably less muscle on the left hind than her right and the muscles over her back and neck were extremely tight and sore to palpate, as a consequence of this, she was using the pacing gait on her walks.  After the initial treatment she seemed much brighter and no longer required the painkillers, after 3 treatments spaced over 6 months, along with rehabilitation exercises I prescribed; that were carried out by her owner; she no longer had issues climbing the stairs or jumping into the car and was back to her old self.

Help! I’ve bought a dud! 

Buying a horse is one of the most exciting things any equestrian can do, but many times it seems to go wrong. I have many phone calls from concerned new owners and the story goes along the same lines, “I’ve bought a horse about 6 weeks ago, it was an angel when I went to see it, and it’s been fine since, but recently he’s started bucking/ napping/ grumpy when tacked up/ won’t let me catch him. His saddle came with him and fitted at the time of purchase”.  

Understandably, the new owner is filled with dread that their horse was drugged to keep it quiet, which has now worn off; or the vet must have missed something at the vetting, either of these are rarely the case. 

It usually happens 6-8 weeks after purchase, so what is going on?

Practitioners often call this phenomenon “wheel’s fallen off syndrome”.  Think about it, if you start a new exercise regime, you are often sore at first, you may stretch it out or ease back on the intensity of the exercise, but your new horse can’t tell you, and so you both continue at the same intensity, until your horse begins to complain. 

A new routine, new management, new rider who may be more or less skilled than the previous one, a different amount of work, a change in the type of work, the list is endless as to the reasons why your horse may get sore within the first 2 months of ownership. Add to this a change in diet and exercise that may cause a change in weight or muscling of the horse, leading to a change in the way the saddle may fit. 

It’s no wonder your new horse may get sore and begin to show a change in attitude or temperament. 

In order to make the transition to the new home as stress free as possible,  the following may be helpful:

  • Make sure you build work up slowly, short rides to begin with, even if the horse is fit when you get it. 
  • Feed the same brand and type of food as the previous owner, buy one bag and transition to a new diet gradually over the first month, if you plan to change it. Make sure you’re not feeding too many calories as this may cause a horse to become excitable.
  • Get your saddle checked between weeks 6 and 8, it’s likely that your new horse may have changed shape. 
  • Get your horses teeth checked, it’s always best to start knowing there are no problems in this department.
  • If your horse’s attitude to work changes within this time frame, it’s best to get its musculoskeletal system checked over, the changes may have caused different stresses on the body which may make the muscles sore. 
  • Don’t forget to get a farrier out within this 6-8 week time frame, making sure the hoof angles don’t change greatly at this time.

There are a number of reasons why your horses attitude may change within the first couple of months of ownership, ruling out these issues one by one will get to the bottom of it.  Most of all, you are not alone, seek out reputable professionals to help you, this is a very common problem that is often easily rectified, allowing you to continue to enjoy horse ownership. 

Canine Stretch Exercises for Physical Health.

Studies have found that baited stretches in horses, often known as carrot stretches, can reduce the incidence of back pain and help to rehabilitate a horse that has been suffering from back pain. The same has been found in humans and dogs.

The baited stretches work a bit like Pilates does in humans, the body is gently stretched to activate the long muscles of the back and core muscles of the stomach, without forcing them or causing strain to the joints. Helping to strengthen and tone these muscles, thus reducing strain and asymmetry.
This form of stretching is called active stretching, where the stretch occurs within a movement, rather than holding the dogs’ body in a stretch. Active stretching has proven, in both human and animal sport, to increase power and acceleration. So is great for those competing in agility or flyball. Passive stretching, where the handler holds the dogs legs in a stretch, immediately before training and competing actually decreases performance.
Using a piece of food or a treat move the dog’s head around to his side, while his feet stay where they are! Start slowly and only move the treat a small distance to let the dog get the idea that he needs to keep his feet still, if he moves his feet, be persistent, but don’t hand over the reward until the dog is in the desired position. This may take some patience to begin with, but the dog will soon get the idea. Remember to reward the smallest try and start off slowly. The following photos show me teaching this method to a family member’s dog, Bindi.

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1. Getting the idea of moving her head with her feet still
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2. Moving the head to the side while keeping the feet still.

Bindi is starting to get the idea in the second photo, which didn’t take very long at all. To progress this exercise continue to move the treat further towards the flank as the dog becomes more flexible. I left this session here because she had got the idea, she is young and it was her first session. Don’t forget to repeat this exercise to both sides.

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Next, move the dog’s head between his front legs, by getting his nose to follow a treat. Again, start slowly, you can see the nice stretch over Bindis back, eventually you would aim for her to stretch her head between her front legs and take the treat from behind her front feet.

Ask your dog to stand with his front legs on top of a box, to stretch the back and hind leg muscles. This gives nice stretch over the hind legs. Obviously if you have a small dog, then a smaller step would be needed, make sure the dog is not straining to reach the raised platform, whatever you may be using, also make sure the footing is good and will not cause the dog to slip off.

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Finally, teaching or encouraging your dog to “play bow” on command helps to stretch the shoulder, triceps and back muscles. Bindi shows the early stages of this, aim to make the forequarters lower than the hindquarters in true “playbow” pose, but again, do this slowly over time.

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Repeat these exercises frequently, 2-3 times a week should be plenty, once your dog is proficient at these, then the frequency can be dropped back to once a week.
Look after your back whilst doing this too, you can see that I have my knees bent and back relatively straight to prevent me putting too much strain on my lower back.

And finally… try not to be gulted into just handing over the treats!

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Why use a McTimoney Animal Practitioner

A popular saying among soft tissue specialists is, “the muscles hold the bones together, you don’t need to adjust the bones, it doesn’t release the muscles”. This common misconception stems from a misunderstanding about how spinal manipulation actually works. It does release the deep postural muscles as I will explain.
As a side note, the bones are held together by ligaments, the muscles attach via tendons and create the power to move the joints, rather than physically holding them together in the majority of cases. Releasing the muscles through soft tissue techniques doesn’t automatically bring the spine and joints back into alignment and so the same restrictions can crop up over and over again.
I started out as an equine sports massage therapist and got great results, the horses were happy, my clients were happy, but there was something I felt was missing from my practice. After training as a McTimoney Animal Practitioner, I am now of the opinion that to truly rehabilitate the body back to full function and prevent further injury occurring, the release of all joints and soft tissues must first take place. This allows functional full range of motion before rehabilitation can occur with the use of exercise, stretching etc. As someone who suffers from back pain due to a spinal injury, I know first-hand how painful stretching and mobilisation can be if muscles are tight and the body has not been brought into alignment first. Symmetrical muscle building occurs more quickly, and is more effective, once all spasms, tension and restrictions through the joints have been removed.
The muscles that are affected directly by spinal manipulation lay deep within the back and neck. These muscles control posture and stabilise the spine, they are always firing, so restriction and dysfunction of these muscles causes pain during everyday tasks and ridden activities for the horse. The most important muscles are called the multifidus, which sits directly next to and around the spine. It is composed of two sections, one which runs from the pelvis to the base of the neck and the second part which runs the length of the neck. The psoas is another important muscle which sits inside the pelvis, attaching to the underside of the lumbar spine and to the top of the femur. It is often implicated in recurrent low back pain, and forms an important part of the horses core muscles, it needs to function correctly for the horse to be able to work without pain and with correct biomechanics.
Using ultrasound scanning, researchers have found that spinal manipulation does release the deep multifidus muscle. Spasm of this muscle causes a decrease in the cross sectional depth of the muscle, after spinal manipulation the cross section measurement was increased, showing that manipulation of the spine causes release of muscle spasm in the deep postural muscles. In human patients the muscle spasms were found at the point that pain was felt, which was reported to have been relieved by spinal manipulation.
The McTimoney technique uses high speed movements to cause a joint to regain its full range of motion, this affects both the muscles and the myofacia, which is an important connective tissue that wraps around all muscles, bones and other structures within the body. The practitioner uses reflexes within their own muscles, which have been trained to respond during certain movements of the arms.
After an initial assessment of the horse, which includes questioning the owner or rider, watching for gait abnormalities, and checking that veterinary permission has been granted, the treatment can begin. When treating, the practitioner first feels for spinal misalignments, by feeling each side of the vertebrae. The tiny rotation of the bones can occur either due to tightening of the muscle attached to one side of the bone, or by direct trauma to the joints themselves, perhaps by getting cast or slipping and falling in the field. To release the tight muscle and realign the vertebrae, the practitioner places pressure on the bone to rotate it to its end of range of movement without forcing it. The McTimoney practitioner then uses a quick movement at the speed of a nerve reflex to “toggle” the bone and allow it to bounce back. This activates the nerves supplying the muscle which in turn releases it, allowing the muscle to relax. The stretch within the muscle and myofascia during adjustment and the consequent recoil of the bone causes relaxation of the muscles surrounding and attached to the bone.
This “relaxing and releasing” stage continues over time, and according to research I have conducted, can continue to create positive changes for up to 2 weeks after treatment. The nerves, which leave the spine by passing between the joints of the vertebrae, are now free from restriction to work at their optimum, the joints of the spine are now free to rotate through their full range of motion and muscles are now able to work at their optimum.

Adjusting the pelvic rotation on a horse

The practitioner will systematically move through the whole body making adjustments as necessary. Once the whole skeleton is realigned and the deep muscles have been released, it is then that massage or other techniques will be employed to make sure all the superficial muscles are released too. Personally I use a combination of sports massage, acupressure and myofacial release which gives a truly whole body treatment. I have found this approach leads to the need for fewer treatments to get the body to respond and stay in this prime state, treatments can be spaced further apart because it tends to hold for longer, allowing the muscles to build strength. Combined with good riding practices, a well-fitting saddle and further rehabilitation exercises given as part of the aftercare advice, the horse will begin to even up and will be able to use itself much more efficiently.
Horses that have strong muscles, good proprioception, and are fit, are far less likely to injure themselves. This is the aim of the McTimoney practitioner, to improve the horse, reduce the likelihood of repeated injury and allow for a longer, healthier working life. In the long run this reduces the amount of money spent by the owner, by reducing the number of treatments required and it reduces the amount of time to full recovery following the initial injury.
McTimoney practitioners are highly qualified and are trained at postgraduate degree level and hold an MSc in Animal Manipulation. They work alongside vets, riding instructors, saddle fitters, dentists and other allied professionals to help both the horse and owner or rider improve. Therapists will offer advice on changes that can be made and will refer to other professionals where necessary, to help owners get the best out of their horses, it gives great satisfaction to help a horse and owner move on, prevent early breakdown and give the horse the best chance of a long, healthy working life.

This article was published in Everything Horse UK magazine November 2014.

Hoof abscess? No stable? No problem!

If your horse lives out and gets a hoof abscess, what do you do, if you have no access to a stable or dry tie up area? Here I have included some photos of how to successfully poultice a hoof without a suitable area to stand your horse. Sadly, my last mare suffered from these on a regular basis, so I became a dab hand at poulticing, even when she lived out 24/7 in a wet muddy field in the winter!

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First scrub the foot out, here we are using hibiscrub, a water or dandy brush and a nail brush to really get the mud out from those hard to reach places.

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Placing foot on a folded towel will help keep the underside clean while you scrub the hoof and up to the pastern.

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No bad! Once the hoof is as clean as you can get it, place your drawing medium over the clean hoof, here I’m using nappies. For a large hoof you may need to use two.

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Then using vet wrap bandage in place.

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Next, wrap the hoof using thick polythene, plastic feed sacks are perfect, try cutting diagonally across the bag, the corner is the perfect shape for wrapping a hoof.

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Duck tape is your best friend here, using the same technique as bandaging, cover the plastic in waterproof tape, it needs to cover the whole of the hoof, especially the toe and hoof wall area which can break through the plastic and tape if not enough is applied over these areas. As long as you use enough tape and reapply the dressing twice a day, it should keep the hoof clean and dry while the poultice does its job.

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Just trim any excess plastic to prevent your horse from treading on it with the other leg and hey presto, your dressing will stay in place.

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Horse riders: a weighty issue.

Last week (March 25th) the press was buzzing with stories of overweight British riders causing suffering, pain and lameness to their horses, sparking debate amongst horse owners, worried that they were hurting their horses.  The research that these stories were based upon was published in the Journal of Veterinary Behaviour.  As a therapist, these stories drew my attention and prompted me to seek out the original paper.  On reading it, it was clear the press had blown it out of all proportion as usual!

The “10% criteria” as stated in the paper was being examined after an “industry practitioner” proposed that a 10% rider to horse bodyweight ratio to be optimum, 15% to be satisfactory and 20% to be a welfare issue.  All riders in the study were of a healthy body mass index (BMI), a medical measure of healthy body weight, and were found to be between 14.2% and 16.6% of their horses’ bodyweight.  The authors aknowledged that the 10% rule appeared to be unrealistic within the general riding population and that more research was needed.  No measures of rider suitability were made, neither were any measures of lameness or pain associated with increased rider weight.

When looking further into this issue, I uncovered research published in 2008 that found horses could comfortably carry 15% or 20% of their bodyweight, while carrying 25-30% caused increased breathing, heart rate took longer to return to pre-exercise levels, and post-exercise muscle soreness and tightness were more common.  Carrying over 30% of their bodyweight horses were also found to have increased blood lactate levels, a measure of how hard the muscles are working.  The researchers of this study also found that increased cannon bone circumference and horses with wider loins were able to carry more weight, a scientific understanding for measuring the cannon bone when judging weight carrying capacity.

In addition to this, research carried out on japanese native ponies found that they were more than capable of carrying up to 29% of their body weight without detrimental effect.

Riders obviously need to be sensible when following the results of any research.  A 500Kg cob with good conformation and no injuries would obviously be able to carry more weight than a 500Kg Thoroughbred.

Previous injury, age and conformation would all have an impact on how much weight a horse can carry.  Overweight horses would need to carry less weight that a similar horse of normal weight, carrying its own excess weight plus the weight of a heavy rider would inevitably cause problems, possibly lameness or muscle damage.

Regardless of how well a horse and rider are matched, taking into account their weight ratio, conformation, previous injuries and weight of the horse, being ridden with correct technique and training, with a rider that is truely self balanced is the best way to increase performance, longevity of working life, and welfare of the horse.

Preventing injuries in agility dogs

Regardless of whether you train for fun, fitness or competition, having your dog pick up an injury can be devastating.  Vets have recently become increasingly concerned about the number of dogs injured whilst training and competing in dog sports.

Careful management of your beloved pet can make all the difference with regards to lowering the risk of becoming injured.

Recent studies have found that keeping your dog within a healthy weight for its breed, height and age is the biggest factor for preventing injuries, especially concussion injuries and the early onset of conditions such as arthritis.

Research into agility has found that  the most common injuries are soft tissue sprains and strains.  A recent survey found that although the majority of competing dogs were uninjured, 33% of dogs in training had suffered an injury, while 58% of those injuries had occurred at a competition.  The shoulders were most commonly injured, followed by the back, stifle (knee), thigh, hip and toes.  The majority of injuries occurred on the A-frame, dogwalk or bar jump.  Training in Flyball on rubber matting was associated with an increased likelihood of arthritis, foot pad and dew claw injuries than those trained on grass, this would probably be similar for agility training, although no studies have looked at training on an equestrian sand surface, where many clubs often train.

If your dog becomes injured STOP.  Do not continue training or competing and seek help from your vet.  Helpful first aid is that anything that feels hot or warmer than usual to the touch should have an ice pack placed against it.  If it is in an area where the dog has less, or thin fur then wrap the ice pack in a flannel to prevent ice burns on the skin.  Try to hold it there for as long as the dog will allow, but no longer than 20 minutes at a time.  Repeat this several times a day until you can see your vet.

There are often signs before an injury happens that owners should pay attention to.  Slower than usual times, knocking poles, slower through the weave or corners are all signs that your dog may not be quite comfortable, or may have a muscle pull or strain.

If your dog is lame, then you need to speak to your vet and get proper treatment for the lameness.  Sometimes your vet may not be able to pinpoint a reason for why your dogs performance has decreased, especially if your dog is not actually lame, under these circumstances you may need to have your dog checked over by a therapist.  Therapists, such as McTimoney therapists, can help to alleviate tight muscles, which in turn can help prevent strain on tendons.  Tendons are more likely to be injured if the muscle associated with it is tight.  Treatment can help increase performance and prevent injury.  The therapist can advise on suitable exercises to help strengthen any weak muscles, this will help improve performance, prevent injury and allow your dog to continue enjoying agility for many years.  Regular treatment, say at the beginning or end of the indoor season, can help to spot any injuries or tight muscles before they prevent the dog from competing.

Following a suitable warm up and cool down routine will dramatically help lower the odds of picking up and injury, as will paying attention to your dogs overall fitness and energy levels, if your dog seems to have less energy than usual it may be necessary to speak to a qualified nutirtionist, veterinary nurse or vet about what to feed to increase vitality or control weight.

Starting out in agility and keeping your dog injury free

If you are thinking about taking agility up with your dog, first think about how fit your dog is.  Discuss with your vet any injuries your dog may have had in the past, and how this will affect his ability to enjoy agility.  If your dog needs to lose weight, then think about increasing your daily walks, walk further or faster, or increase the number of smaller walks in the day if possible, to help your dog to lose weight before starting any fast work.  Walking on the lead is the best exercise for obese dogs.  If you have a puppy, wait until the dog reaches maturity before undertaking any high impact work, such as repeated jumping at speed.  An immature skeleton or being overweight can lead to an increased risk in concussion injuries or affect joint development in the young dog.

While your dog is still unfit you can start to introduce the obedience aspect required for agility, and the agility equipment to your dog, in a safe environment and preferably with an experienced trainer.  They will introduce the equipment slowly and help to increase your dogs confidence.  The dog walk, weave, tunnel, and contact points can all be taught at a walk, on a lead.  For the health of your dog, leave any jumping until his weight is close to normal for his size, breed and age.  Your vet can help advise you when your dog is at a suitable weight to start jumping.

As your dog builds muscle, having him checked over by a qualified therapist can help prevent problems futher donw the road, the therapist will release tight muscles, this will help prevent muscles tears, and tendon strains, they can advise if the training can be pushed on or whether your dog needs to have less exercise for a while, allowing the body to repair and adjust to the increasing demand.

Remember to always warm both you and your dog up properly before starting any training, I have laid out some simple advice about warming up your dog in another article.

Being sensible and following the advise of your vet, trainer and therapist will help you and your dog to enjoy agility and help reduce the risk of any injuries occurring.

Guide to warming up your dog for competition or training

Whatever discipline you compete in or even if your dog is a working dog, the warm up is one of the most important factors in keeping your dog sound for the long term and injury free.  I would advise warming up even when training, whether you are practicing speed and obstacle skills or improving general behaviour training, the warm up will help your dog stay focussed and limber.  Warm up and cool down before and after every training session and competition, even if you are just training in your garden.

More than one study has looked at the effects of the warm up on injury rates, regardless of the sport and has found that dogs need to be warmed up for at least 9 minutes, otherwise muscle injuries are commonplace.

Start by brisk walking for 2 minutes, then trotting your dog for a few minutes (about 3 minutes) then introduce some cantering for a minute or 2, finally introduce some low jumps (for flyball and agility).

Include some active stretches after this, instead of holding your dog in a stretch, active stretching has proven, in both human and animal sport, to increase power and acceleration, while passive stretching, where the handler holds the dogs legs in a stretch, immediately before training and competing actually decreases performance.  Using a baited stretch, where a piece of food is used to move the dogs head around to his flank, while his feet stay where they are!  Move the dogs head between his front legs, by getting his nose to follow a treat, repeat on the other side. Active stretching prevents the muscles from being overstretched before strenuous exercise. Ask your dog to stand with his front legs on top of a box, to stretch the back and hind leg muscles. Teaching or encouraging your dog to “play bow” on command helps to stretch the shoulder, triceps and back muscles.

Finally at the end of the session remember to cool down effectively, 10 to 25 minutes of walking, start at a fast walk, then gradually change to a slower pace.