Does horse riding make you fit, or should you get fit to ride?
During the course of my work I ask owners to trot their horses up for me, I only need to see the horse move over 20 to 30 meters and usually only ask the owner to walk and trot once aling this length. I’m often surprised at the number of owners who are struggling to catch their breath after running this short distance.
Research suggests that fit riders will be able to say in better balance with their horses, putting less strain on their musculoskeletal system. Even heavier, better balanced riders are less strain on the horses’ body than lighter, novice riders.
If the rider is serious about keeping their horse in the best condition possible and wants to avoid injury to themselves or their horses, then getting at least basically fit should be their main aim.
Apart from putting strain on the horse, unfit riders are more likely to fall off and get seriously hurt. Even simple tumbles can be more serious when the rider has less fitness, core strength or overall strength to rely on.
As we age, we need to be thinking more about getting fit enough and strong enough to ride. Increasing trunk and leg strength, cardiovascular capacity and flexibility will have good repercussions on our riding, increasing our reactions and the ability to stay on should anything unexpected happen.
I am finding that making even as little as 10 or 20 minutes a day to exercise can have positive effects on the body. For busy people exercise DVDs are excellent or there are now many good apps to exercise at home. Try Yoga, Pilates or Thai Chi to develop strength and all important flexibility. Walking or swimming are excellent low impact activities that done regularly will improve cardiovascular health.
Trying to get fitter will improve your health, help you to sleep better and therefore help you fight the effects of stress. Not only that, but you will become a better and more effective rider, helping to prevent injury to both you and your horse.
Buying a horse is one of the most exciting things any equestrian can do, but many times it seems to go wrong. I have many phone calls from concerned new owners and the story goes along the same lines, “I’ve bought a horse about 6 weeks ago, it was an angel when I went to see it, and it’s been fine since, but recently he’s started bucking/ napping/ grumpy when tacked up/ won’t let me catch him. His saddle came with him and fitted at the time of purchase”.
Understandably, the new owner is filled with dread that their horse was drugged to keep it quiet, which has now worn off; or the vet must have missed something at the vetting, either of these are rarely the case.
It usually happens 6-8 weeks after purchase, so what is going on?
Practitioners often call this phenomenon “wheel’s fallen off syndrome”. Think about it, if you start a new exercise regime, you are often sore at first, you may stretch it out or ease back on the intensity of the exercise, but your new horse can’t tell you, and so you both continue at the same intensity, until your horse begins to complain.
A new routine, new management, new rider who may be more or less skilled than the previous one, a different amount of work, a change in the type of work, the list is endless as to the reasons why your horse may get sore within the first 2 months of ownership. Add to this a change in diet and exercise that may cause a change in weight or muscling of the horse, leading to a change in the way the saddle may fit.
It’s no wonder your new horse may get sore and begin to show a change in attitude or temperament.
In order to make the transition to the new home as stress free as possible, the following may be helpful:
Make sure you build work up slowly, short rides to begin with, even if the horse is fit when you get it.
Feed the same brand and type of food as the previous owner, buy one bag and transition to a new diet gradually over the first month, if you plan to change it. Make sure you’re not feeding too many calories as this may cause a horse to become excitable.
Get your saddle checked between weeks 6 and 8, it’s likely that your new horse may have changed shape.
Get your horses teeth checked, it’s always best to start knowing there are no problems in this department.
If your horse’s attitude to work changes within this time frame, it’s best to get its musculoskeletal system checked over, the changes may have caused different stresses on the body which may make the muscles sore.
Don’t forget to get a farrier out within this 6-8 week time frame, making sure the hoof angles don’t change greatly at this time.
There are a number of reasons why your horses attitude may change within the first couple of months of ownership, ruling out these issues one by one will get to the bottom of it. Most of all, you are not alone, seek out reputable professionals to help you, this is a very common problem that is often easily rectified, allowing you to continue to enjoy horse ownership.
Therapists have helped to open the eyes of horse and animal owners to the benefits of physical therapy, owners have responded by getting their horses “back checked” if there is a problem such as bucking, napping, girthiness or performance deteriorates. However, less known are the benefits of physical therapy, including spinal manipulation, for general and long term health.
Most horse owners are now aware that taking a tumble while jumping, slipping in muddy fields, poor fitting saddle and unbalanced riders can all cause discomfort for the horse and muscular imbalance. However the more I treat, the more I come across horses whose behaviour has stumped their owners, but has resolved with physical therapy. Behaviour and what it can tell us.
The horse has evolved to be stoic, in evolutionary terms, they often hide their pain to prevent predators from knowing that they may be easily picked off. This “hiding” of symptoms can prevent owners from recognising physical problems and is common to many horse I treat. Lots of horses appear to tolerate pain or don’t show the classic symptoms associated with pain, they may, however be trying to communicate their discomfort in other ways.
Changes in a horse’s behaviour or demeanour are a big clue to any issues that may be occurring. If a horse started a new behaviour such as pulling faces when tacked up, being difficult to catch or generally just being grumpy can all be indicators that something is amiss.
I often hear people say that their horse is always grumpy/ naps/ pulls faces, turns to bite when groomed “that’s just how he is”. It is my opinion, just because behaviour has always occurred, doesn’t mean that behaviour is normal. Trying to find the reason for the sour attitude can bring huge changes to the demeanour of that animal.
Many behaviours that are considered normal by horse owners or just bad habits can be clues to a horses stress or pain levels or mental state. In behavioural science, a behaviour is considered normal for a species when it is exhibited by all members of that species, just because a behaviour is common amongst riding horses for instance, doesn’t mean that behaviour is normal or healthy.
Until recently it was considered that cribbing was a “vice”, a bad habit that horses did and thought of in the same context as smoking or drug taking in humans, horses were often blamed for teaching other horses to crib. Nowadays it is known that cribbing is a consequence of gastrointestinal pain and that all horses under the same management and feeding regime are likely to experience the similar gastrointestinal upset, the pattern of lots of horses on the same yard exhibiting behavioural stereotypies. With new knowledge, previous examples of poor animal welfare come to light and we start to understand how to improve it. Fear, aggression and musculoskeletal pain.
The more animals I treat, the more I am convinced that, fear, nervousness and aggression are in many cases, linked to musculoskeletal pain. This is true for dogs as it is for horses.
Many times I hear the phases – spooky, reactive, headshy, grumpy, headshaker, teeth grinding. While many of these are often linked to previous trauma, previous poor handling or rough training techniques I have found that many animals with these symptoms are the suffering from some kind of clinical or subclinical musculoskeletal condition.
Clinical conditions require veterinary treatment, such as lameness, however subclinical conditions are often related to musculoskeletal pain or spinal misalignments which lead to musculoskeletal restriction and pain.
In conjunction with behavioural therapy, physical therapy can dramatically improve the demeanour and subsequent prospects of a horse that is displaying behavioural issues such as aggression and nervousness.
Case Study: Lady
Lady is a horse I treated at my local horse sanctuary, where I volunteer my skills to help the residents. Before arriving there
her behaviour had become aggressive towards her owner who felt she couldn’t cope with her anymore. The previous owners vet had prescribed a hormone therapy to combat her grumpy marish behaviour, but had not had much effect. When I first met Lady she was watching her horsey friends and not paying much attention to the humans around her. On trot up she was sound, but was restricted through her whole body, moving in a rather stiff manner. Her muscles were hard all over and very asymmetrical, large bulges of muscle around her neck, hindquarters and underline, but no topline. Although sound on trot up, she generally looked stiff with no swing or stretch to her.
She showed discomfort on palpation through her neck and back. She stood for the treatment even though she was wary for a while and ended up looking much quieter and more relaxed. She had previously had violent reactions under saddle and so her treatment plan was field rest with regular treatments.
After 5 treatments spaced over 6 months longlining was introduced to help re-educate her body to move more with her back lifted and stepping under to help build topline and even up her muscles, which by now had greatly relaxed and a reduction in the areas of over muscling had been seen. With this groundwork and 2 more treatments over the following 6 months there was no evidence of muscular pain, she was much happier in herself, more relaxed and happy to begin her ridden work.
Lady was rehomed shortly after and now competes in dressage being placed every time out. Case Study: Fox Fox is my own horse and has been a really interesting and challenging case study. He came to me after proving to be difficult to catch and dangerous to ride, he was difficult to lead being high on adrenaline the whole time, he did not know how to relax and was very stressed. He was explosively spooky and did not trust people. He came from a very experienced owner, but they could not cope with his behaviour. He would appear quiet one minute, then suddenly exploding which would include galloping off at high speed, eyes wide, head as high as he could carry it.
He did not look quite right on trot up, and on closer inspection it was clear that here was damage to his pelvis, either a fracture or damage to the sacral ligaments, he had pain throughout his entire body due to over tight muscles. Despite all of this he seemed a sweet natured horse and I wanted to give him a chance.
On getting him home I noticed that his muscles were so contracted that he had difficulty in reaching the ground to graze. He accepted his first treatment and seemed a lot quieter afterwards.
Due to the nature of his injury I have been slowly rehabilitating his muscles over the past year, using exercise therapy alongside treatments to build his muscles in order to hold the pelvis in place, while teaching him to use his back and step under. He is now much quieter and able to cope with life in general, if he does spook, he reacts more normally, not running around trying to escape anymore. He no longer has contracted muscles and has had weight on his back with no reactions. He now reacts like a normal, albeit, high spirited horse with a rather cheeky personality. Pain, depression and anxiety.
In humans, pain, depression and anxiety are commonly linked. Pain pathways cause a decrease in serotonin, a chemical that helps us to feel safe, calm and happy. When chronic (long term) pain is present, even low levels of constant or regular pain, then serotonin can get “used up”, the body can’t produce enough to counteract its use in the pain pathway, then we being to feel depressed and anxious. Although this has not been studied in horses, this phenomenon has been seen in humans, mice, rats and primates and has been shown to produce the same biochemical reactions in all species, so there is no reason why this would not be the same for horses.
The anxiety felt when serotonin is reduced, is caused by an imbalance between serotonin and adrenalin, the hormone responsible for the flight or fight response.
With adrenalin being responsible for mood and behaviour when serotonin levels are low, the individual will be more spooky and reactive, more flighty or when cornered, more aggressive.
The problem with high adrenalin and low serotonin is that adrenalin has no negative feedback mechanism. Adrenalin stays high, the horse becomes more flighty and aggressive, which in turn causes adrenlin to become even higher.
Once the adrenalin has been elevated for a while receptors on cells become “addicted” to it. So high adrenalin become the normal state for the body. Any small but stressful event causes a bigger, faster reaction because adrenalin is already high and more adrenalin gets released to add to it. The horse eventually appears to have a “hair trigger”. The horse looks calm enough but because baseline adrenalin is already high, any event, no matter how small, will trigger an explosive reaction, which to us looks like a complete over reaction. The horse begins to get labelled as unpredictable, explosive and dangerous. This may cause the horse to be put to sleep, when it was just trying to survive the situation and pain levels that it had been subjected to. This article was originally published in Everything Horse UK December 2014.
Just as building your core muscles can help improve your riding and muscle control, it also reduces back pain and is also true for your horse. Making sure that your horse is fit enough for the work that is being asked of it is generally well known among horse owners and riders. Improving your horses fitness , termed conditioning, is important to carry out when increasing your horses’ workload. However, within therapy circles, both animal and human, are the concepts of rehabilitation and prehabilitation which takes the concept of conditioning further and includes exercises to improve core strength and allow the athlete to work and compete with a reduced risk of getting injured in the first place.
Conditioning plans for gradually introducing increased amounts of work for the horse concentrate on conditioning the cardio vascular system, the benefits of this are increasing lung capacity, reducing recovery times post exercise and building muscle mass. Gradually increasing the work a horse receives gives the body time to respond to an increasing work load and will prevent over use or strain injuries and prevent conditions such as tying up. The musculoskeletal system will also get conditioned, the major locomotor muscles will get stronger, which will reduce the likelihood of injury if, for instance, going over varied terrain.
The term prehabilitation means going through the process of rehabilitation to help prevent injury from occurring in the first place. The main result of prehabilitation for horses is to strengthen the core muscles. If the core muscles are properly strengthened and conditioned the horse is better set up to avoid injury. Increased core strength will help the horse deal better with being ridden, helping them to carry the rider with ease and prevent back pain, it can help prevent a horse from breaking down early with conditions such as arthritis and non-specific back pain or reluctance to work. A horse with a well-conditioned, strong core will be able to avoid doing the splits when slipping or will be able to “save itself” from a fall if, for instance, slipping or hitting a jump cross country or out hacking, if it has a strong core.
Rehabilitation is the process that owners, trainers and therapists use to bring a horse back from injury. First the horse receives proper veterinary care for the initial injury and supportive care to help the best chance of the injury healing, which is followed by a conditioning program to bring the horse back into working fitness.
Detailed here are a few simple exercises and small changes to your daily management routine that can have a big impact on the working life of your horse, this comes under the umbrella of prehabilitation.
Grooming for massage.
In days gone by people would make a hay whisp and use this to beat against the horses’ large muscle groups, look in any old horse management book and you will see instructions on how to make these. A more effective (and modern) way to achieve similar results is to use a rubber curry comb. Every horse owner should have a rubber curry comb in their grooming kit. They can remove dried mud from hocks, knees and fetlocks without hurting the horse or pulling the hair, and it helps to get the coat out when shedding, especially useful if your horse is too sensitive to use a striping comb. It also works to give your horse an all over body massage and is extremely effective to use between physical therapy treatments to help extend the benefits of the treatment and prevent small muscle knots from forming. Use it in big circles, pressing into your horses muscles on the neck, lower shoulder and back. Use a zig zag pattern over the hind quarters and outer thigh. Because the rubber curry comb is soft it won’t hurt if you go over a bony area, but it is best to avoid these areas.
Use this routine as part of your daily grooming, it will help increase circulation to the skin and help give a lovely shiny coat, your horse will really love it and it is an easy way for horse owners to give an effective massage. It is really useful if your horse wears a rug at this time of year to help keep the skin in tip top condition, preventing dry scurfy skin and helping to relieve any itches your horse may have under the rug. If your horse is really sensitive and doesn’t like being groomed much start off with a light pressure for the first week or so and gradually increase the pressure you use, you will be surprised that they may actually start to enjoy being groomed.
Carrot stretches and stationary reflex stretches.
Carrot stretches have been proven to mobilise the spine, reduce pain and increase tone in the deep postural muscles of the back, the very deep muscles that control the posture and stabilisation of the spine. See photos for carrot stretch postures.
Other carrot stretches include bringing the nose round the side to the shoulder, then the ribs, then when the horse is more advanced you can bring the nose round as far as the hip. Advancing the ‘nose to fetlock’ exercise you would bring the treat further and further between the legs so the horse is able to strech its head right between and behind
its front legs.
Reflex stretches take a bit of practice, but they help to fire the nerves involved in contraction of the core muscles, helping to wake these muscles up and stretch the lumbar spine. Often physical therapists will use reflex stretches at the end of a treatment to stretch certain muscles and cause the core muscles to fire, aiding in changes that occur in the body after a treatment and helping to lengthen the effectiveness of the treatment. Practiced regularly they can really benefit the horse’s core muscles.
Simple reflex stretch.
If it is safe to do so, stand behind your horse with him standing square, press firmly with your fingers about mid-way across the gluteal muscles (see photo for details) and run your fingers back towards you passing either side of the hamstrings and pressing in firmly as the muscles curve in above the hind leg. This will encourage your horse to arch its back and tuck the pelvis under, stretching the lower back and firing the core muscles. Be careful not to put too much pressure on when pressing in at the top of the leg at first, as this may cause your horse to kick, go light to start with and try again if there is no response. The response is often small if the muscles of the hind quarters are tight or the horse is stiff through the lower back so don’t overdo this.
For more information on this Hillary Clayton and Narelle Stubbs have released a book and DVD explaining these exercises and more, it is available from the British Equine Veterinary Association online bookshop, entitled Activate Your Horses Core, it is a useful tool for all horse owners.
Working your horse from the ground is a great way to prepare for ridden work and enables you to watch how they move. Research has found that groundwork exercises help your horse to feel more relaxed once you get in the saddle. The first simple exercise is leading your horse in a small circle.
As long as you can lead your horse safely in hand then this exercise is great, it helps to encourage the horse to take more weight on the inside hindleg and to step under themselves correctly, in turn, this will encourage them to lift their backs and strengthen the core muscles. I have used this in the rehabilitation of lots of horses and really helps them before more demanding exercises are used, it is a great prehabilitation exercise.
You don’t need any fancy equipment and works just as well in a headcollar, or a bridle can be worn. First ask the horse to SLOWLY walk around you in a circle, if your horse needs a bit of help at first then make the circle bigger and walk next to him, if your horse can walk in a small circle slightly away from and ahead of you then all the better. Watch the inside hind leg and gently adjust the head towards the inside or outside of the circle very slightly by shortening or lengthening the rope to get the inside hind leg to step up towards the middle of the belly.
As long as the horses back and neck are not restricted then they will be able to lower the head naturally and walk with their neck horizontal to the shoulder. This exercise helps to strengthen the hind leg and stretch the back. The horse should be walking slowly, but in a regular rhythm on a 5 or 10 meter circle. Only do a half to a whole circle to start with and build up to 10 circles over the course of a few weeks. At first, be sure to stop when your horse steps correctly, even if it’s just the one step, and give him praise and a rest so that he knows what you are aiming, then try again. Make sure you do this in both directions, you may find at first that your horse seems to bend to the outside of the circle in one direction, ignore this as the exercise will correct it, just focus on the inside hind leg and make sure it steps towards the middle of the belly. Practice this everyday if you can, before or after you ride, it only takes a few minutes and gives big rewards in the long run. This exercise forms the basis of therapeutic lunging, ensuring the horse moves correctly on a circle without the need for restrictive gadgets.
As the horse progresses and can hold the exercise on a 5 meter circle for 10 laps, stepping correctly with each step then the circle can be made bigger by a couple of meters at a time, if the horse starts to “lose form”, then make the circle smaller again and continue the exercise, eventually the horse will be able to move on a 20 or 25 meter circle, stepping correctly towards the middle of the belly, with the head held low and the body curving to follow the arc of the circle. Therapeutically, I would wait until the horse is able to do this in walk before asking for trot on a larger circle. Backing up.
Backing up SLOWLY will encourage your horse to round his back and tuck the pelvis under as he steps back, it also helps the horse to carry weight on the hind legs, helping to strengthen them, especially the gluteal and quadriceps muscles. Start this exercise in hand before moving onto doing it whilst ridden.
Standing in front of and to the side of your horse use gentle pressure on the headcollar to ask the horse to step back, do not apply too much pressure or the horse will lift his head and hollow his back which is the opposite of what you want to achieve. Make sure the steps are slow and in a straight line. If your horse is a bit weak on one side he will tend to step back in a curve towards the stronger side, try standing on the same side of his head as the direction he tried to veer to, this often helps the horse to move back in a straighter line. Take a step then stop, ask the horse to step forward, pause, then ask again. Eventually your horse will be able to back for a few steps in a straight line.
If you are using positive reinforcement, move your target back towards your horses’ chest, when he steps back and touches the target reward him and continue to build the exercise.
This is excellent at helping to stretch the lower back and take weight on the hind quarters as the pelvis tucks and the back rounds. Once your horse can do several steps with ease in a straight line try backing up a slight incline, this will increase the stretch, then up a hill once your horse can back up the incline with ease. Think about how people move when they practice Tai Chi, the slower and more purposeful the movement the better at strengthening the muscles.
This article was first published in Everything Horse UK January 2015.
A popular saying among soft tissue specialists is, “the muscles hold the bones together, you don’t need to adjust the bones, it doesn’t release the muscles”. This common misconception stems from a misunderstanding about how spinal manipulation actually works. It does release the deep postural muscles as I will explain.
As a side note, the bones are held together by ligaments, the muscles attach via tendons and create the power to move the joints, rather than physically holding them together in the majority of cases. Releasing the muscles through soft tissue techniques doesn’t automatically bring the spine and joints back into alignment and so the same restrictions can crop up over and over again.
I started out as an equine sports massage therapist and got great results, the horses were happy, my clients were happy, but there was something I felt was missing from my practice. After training as a McTimoney Animal Practitioner, I am now of the opinion that to truly rehabilitate the body back to full function and prevent further injury occurring, the release of all joints and soft tissues must first take place. This allows functional full range of motion before rehabilitation can occur with the use of exercise, stretching etc. As someone who suffers from back pain due to a spinal injury, I know first-hand how painful stretching and mobilisation can be if muscles are tight and the body has not been brought into alignment first. Symmetrical muscle building occurs more quickly, and is more effective, once all spasms, tension and restrictions through the joints have been removed.
The muscles that are affected directly by spinal manipulation lay deep within the back and neck. These muscles control posture and stabilise the spine, they are always firing, so restriction and dysfunction of these muscles causes pain during everyday tasks and ridden activities for the horse. The most important muscles are called the multifidus, which sits directly next to and around the spine. It is composed of two sections, one which runs from the pelvis to the base of the neck and the second part which runs the length of the neck. The psoas is another important muscle which sits inside the pelvis, attaching to the underside of the lumbar spine and to the top of the femur. It is often implicated in recurrent low back pain, and forms an important part of the horses core muscles, it needs to function correctly for the horse to be able to work without pain and with correct biomechanics.
Using ultrasound scanning, researchers have found that spinal manipulation does release the deep multifidus muscle. Spasm of this muscle causes a decrease in the cross sectional depth of the muscle, after spinal manipulation the cross section measurement was increased, showing that manipulation of the spine causes release of muscle spasm in the deep postural muscles. In human patients the muscle spasms were found at the point that pain was felt, which was reported to have been relieved by spinal manipulation.
The McTimoney technique uses high speed movements to cause a joint to regain its full range of motion, this affects both the muscles and the myofacia, which is an important connective tissue that wraps around all muscles, bones and other structures within the body. The practitioner uses reflexes within their own muscles, which have been trained to respond during certain movements of the arms.
After an initial assessment of the horse, which includes questioning the owner or rider, watching for gait abnormalities, and checking that veterinary permission has been granted, the treatment can begin. When treating, the practitioner first feels for spinal misalignments, by feeling each side of the vertebrae. The tiny rotation of the bones can occur either due to tightening of the muscle attached to one side of the bone, or by direct trauma to the joints themselves, perhaps by getting cast or slipping and falling in the field. To release the tight muscle and realign the vertebrae, the practitioner places pressure on the bone to rotate it to its end of range of movement without forcing it. The McTimoney practitioner then uses a quick movement at the speed of a nerve reflex to “toggle” the bone and allow it to bounce back. This activates the nerves supplying the muscle which in turn releases it, allowing the muscle to relax. The stretch within the muscle and myofascia during adjustment and the consequent recoil of the bone causes relaxation of the muscles surrounding and attached to the bone.
This “relaxing and releasing” stage continues over time, and according to research I have conducted, can continue to create positive changes for up to 2 weeks after treatment. The nerves, which leave the spine by passing between the joints of the vertebrae, are now free from restriction to work at their optimum, the joints of the spine are now free to rotate through their full range of motion and muscles are now able to work at their optimum.
The practitioner will systematically move through the whole body making adjustments as necessary. Once the whole skeleton is realigned and the deep muscles have been released, it is then that massage or other techniques will be employed to make sure all the superficial muscles are released too. Personally I use a combination of sports massage, acupressure and myofacial release which gives a truly whole body treatment. I have found this approach leads to the need for fewer treatments to get the body to respond and stay in this prime state, treatments can be spaced further apart because it tends to hold for longer, allowing the muscles to build strength. Combined with good riding practices, a well-fitting saddle and further rehabilitation exercises given as part of the aftercare advice, the horse will begin to even up and will be able to use itself much more efficiently.
Horses that have strong muscles, good proprioception, and are fit, are far less likely to injure themselves. This is the aim of the McTimoney practitioner, to improve the horse, reduce the likelihood of repeated injury and allow for a longer, healthier working life. In the long run this reduces the amount of money spent by the owner, by reducing the number of treatments required and it reduces the amount of time to full recovery following the initial injury.
McTimoney practitioners are highly qualified and are trained at postgraduate degree level and hold an MSc in Animal Manipulation. They work alongside vets, riding instructors, saddle fitters, dentists and other allied professionals to help both the horse and owner or rider improve. Therapists will offer advice on changes that can be made and will refer to other professionals where necessary, to help owners get the best out of their horses, it gives great satisfaction to help a horse and owner move on, prevent early breakdown and give the horse the best chance of a long, healthy working life.
This article was published in Everything Horse UK magazine November 2014.
If your horse lives out and gets a hoof abscess, what do you do, if you have no access to a stable or dry tie up area? Here I have included some photos of how to successfully poultice a hoof without a suitable area to stand your horse. Sadly, my last mare suffered from these on a regular basis, so I became a dab hand at poulticing, even when she lived out 24/7 in a wet muddy field in the winter!
First scrub the foot out, here we are using hibiscrub, a water or dandy brush and a nail brush to really get the mud out from those hard to reach places.
Placing foot on a folded towel will help keep the underside clean while you scrub the hoof and up to the pastern.
No bad! Once the hoof is as clean as you can get it, place your drawing medium over the clean hoof, here I’m using nappies. For a large hoof you may need to use two.
Then using vet wrap bandage in place.
Next, wrap the hoof using thick polythene, plastic feed sacks are perfect, try cutting diagonally across the bag, the corner is the perfect shape for wrapping a hoof.
Duck tape is your best friend here, using the same technique as bandaging, cover the plastic in waterproof tape, it needs to cover the whole of the hoof, especially the toe and hoof wall area which can break through the plastic and tape if not enough is applied over these areas. As long as you use enough tape and reapply the dressing twice a day, it should keep the hoof clean and dry while the poultice does its job.
Just trim any excess plastic to prevent your horse from treading on it with the other leg and hey presto, your dressing will stay in place.
Last week (March 25th) the press was buzzing with stories of overweight British riders causing suffering, pain and lameness to their horses, sparking debate amongst horse owners, worried that they were hurting their horses. The research that these stories were based upon was published in the Journal of Veterinary Behaviour. As a therapist, these stories drew my attention and prompted me to seek out the original paper. On reading it, it was clear the press had blown it out of all proportion as usual!
The “10% criteria” as stated in the paper was being examined after an “industry practitioner” proposed that a 10% rider to horse bodyweight ratio to be optimum, 15% to be satisfactory and 20% to be a welfare issue. All riders in the study were of a healthy body mass index (BMI), a medical measure of healthy body weight, and were found to be between 14.2% and 16.6% of their horses’ bodyweight. The authors aknowledged that the 10% rule appeared to be unrealistic within the general riding population and that more research was needed. No measures of rider suitability were made, neither were any measures of lameness or pain associated with increased rider weight.
When looking further into this issue, I uncovered research published in 2008 that found horses could comfortably carry 15% or 20% of their bodyweight, while carrying 25-30% caused increased breathing, heart rate took longer to return to pre-exercise levels, and post-exercise muscle soreness and tightness were more common. Carrying over 30% of their bodyweight horses were also found to have increased blood lactate levels, a measure of how hard the muscles are working. The researchers of this study also found that increased cannon bone circumference and horses with wider loins were able to carry more weight, a scientific understanding for measuring the cannon bone when judging weight carrying capacity.
In addition to this, research carried out on japanese native ponies found that they were more than capable of carrying up to 29% of their body weight without detrimental effect.
Riders obviously need to be sensible when following the results of any research. A 500Kg cob with good conformation and no injuries would obviously be able to carry more weight than a 500Kg Thoroughbred.
Previous injury, age and conformation would all have an impact on how much weight a horse can carry. Overweight horses would need to carry less weight that a similar horse of normal weight, carrying its own excess weight plus the weight of a heavy rider would inevitably cause problems, possibly lameness or muscle damage.
Regardless of how well a horse and rider are matched, taking into account their weight ratio, conformation, previous injuries and weight of the horse, being ridden with correct technique and training, with a rider that is truely self balanced is the best way to increase performance, longevity of working life, and welfare of the horse.